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Biodiesel di Indonesia



Bio-Fuel secara singkat adalah Bahan bakar yang berasal dari bahan tumbuh-tumbuhan, yang juga disebut Non-Fossil Energy.

Berbeda dengan Bahan Bakar yang banyak kita kenal saat ini yaitu Bahan Bakar Motor, Minyak Tanah, Minyak Diesel yang termasuk kelompok Fossil Energy.

Kesadaran akan makin berkurangnya cadangan Bahan bakar berbasis Fossil Energy ini, diiringi dengan banyaknya kritik tentang Emisi Karbon yang dihasilkan oleh Bahan Bakar ini, membuat para Perusahaan Raksasa Minyak Dunia pun mulai beralih melakukan penelitian dan bahkan investasi di Non Fossil Energy ini.

Bio-Fuel menjadi primadona dengan kemasan yang ramah lingkungan. Walaupun ada juga pihak yang menentang BioFuel dengan alasan akan adanya pertarungan antara Food untuk manusia dan Food untuk Kendaraan bermotor dan Industri.

Apa komoditi dan bahan baku utama Bio-Fuel?

Ada 4 bahan baku utama yang saat ini digunakan:

  1. Palm: atau juga dikenal dengan Kelapa Sawit
  2. Jatropa Curcas: atau Jarak Pagar
  3. Sugar cane: atau tanaman Tebu
  4. Cassave: atau Ubi Kayu

Bisa dilihat bahwa smeuanya adalah berbasis bahan dari tumbuhan yang juga dikonsumsi oleh Manusia.

Produk dari Bio-Fuel:

  1. Bio-Ethanol: digunakan sebagai pengganti BBM (Gasoline) pada transportasi, dengan target 10%. Bahan bakunya adalah dari Sugar cane (Tanaman Tebu) dan Cassava (Ubi Kayu).
  2. Bio-Diesel: akan menjadi pengganti Bahan Bakar Diesel (Solar) yang akan digunakan untuk Transportasi (10%) dan Power Plant (50%). Bahan Bakunya adalah dari Kelapa Sawit dan jarak Pagar.
  3. Bio-Oil mempunyai 3 turunan yaitu:
    • Bio-Kerosin: sebagai pengganti Minyak Tanah di rumah tangga (10%) dengan berbahan baku Kelapa Sawit dan Jarak Pagar
    • Bio-Oil: sebagai pengganti Automotive Diesel Oil (ADO) untuk transportasi (10%) dan Power Plant (10-50%), dan Bio-Oil sebagai pengganti Industry Diesel Oil (IDO) untuk Transportasi Laut dan Kereta Api (10%), juga bahan baku yang sama dengan Bio-Kerosin.
    • Bio-Oil: sebagai pengganti Minyak Bakar (Fuel Oil) untuk Industry sebanyak 50%. Bahan baku nya adalah Kelapa Sawit dan Jarak Pagar.
    • Bio-Diesel: sebagai pengganti Bahan Bakar Solar pada Transportasi (10%) dan Power Plant (50%). Bahan bakunya adalah Kelapa Sawit dan Jarak Pagar.

Pada saat ini, Bio-Diesel (B-5) sudah dipasarkan di 201 Gas Station di Jakarta dan 12 gas Station di Surabaya.

Sedangkan Bio-Etahnol (E-5) yang juga dikenal dengan sebutan Bio-Premium sudah dijual di Malang dan Jakarta.

Desember 2006 lalu, telah dikenalkan apa yang disebut Bio-Pertamax di 1 Gas Station di Jakarta.

Beberapa Producer Bio-Fuel yang sudah dikenal di Indonesia adalah:

  1. PT. Eterindo Jawa Timur
  2. PT. Molindo Raya
  3. PT. Lampung Destileri
  4. PT. Energi Alternatif Indonesia
  5. PT. Sumi Asih
  6. PT. Platinum
  7. PT. Wilmar Bioenergi Indonesia

Data dari Department ESDM juga menyebutkan sejumlah Power Plant yang sudah menggunakan Biofuel sebagai bahan bakarnya, yaitu:

powerplant-biofuel.jpg

Saat ini ada 13 Perusahaan yang memproduksi BioFuel, sebagai berikut:

biofuel-producer-indonesia.jpg

Ini adalah angka target 2010.

Pemerintah Indonesia sendiri, dalam kerangka pengembangan BIOFUEL ini, ini mempunyai target untuk tahun 2010 sebagai berikut:

  1. Menciptakan lapangan pekerjaan bagi 3.5 juta orang
  2. Meningkatkan pendapatan petani minimal menyamai UMR
  3. Mengembangkan tananaman bahan Biofuel di 5.5 juta hektar tanah
  4. Terbentuknya 1000 Daerah yang-Self-Sufficient-Energy (DESA MANDIRI) dan 12 daerah khusus BIOFUEL
  5. Mengurangi ketergantungan akan Fossil Fuel paling tidak 10%
  6. Menghemat Valuta Asing sampai US$10 Milliar
  7. Memenuhi kebutuhan BIOFUEL dalam enegri dan eksport

Pemerintah juga menyiapkan payung hukum dalam bentuk Keputusan President ataupun Peraturan Perundang-undangan lainnya seperti:

  1. Peraturan President No. 5/2006 tentang Kebijaksanaan Energi Nasional
  2. Instruksi President No. 1/2006 tentang Pengadaaan dan Penggunaan Biofuel sebagai energi alternative
  3. Dektrit President No. 10/2006 tentang Pembentukan team nasional untuk Pengembangan Biofuel

Untuk menyebut sebagian saja.

DESIGN PROCESS PABRIK BIODIESEL

DESIGN PROCESS PABRIK BIODIESEL

Catalyst Preparation

  • H2SO4 — esterification
  • KOH + MeOH — trans-esterification

Esterification

  • To convert Free Fatty Acid (FFA) — methyl ester
  • Low temperature and pressure
  • Reflux methanol

Trans-esterification

  • To convert Fatty Acid — methyl ester
  • Low temperature and pressure
  • Reflux methanol Two step

Product Purification

  • Washing by water and weak acid
  • High vacuum separation water content < 500 ppm

Methanol Recovery

  • Distillation column
  • Methanol evaporator

API atau American Petroleum Institute adalah suatu “Main US trade association ” untuk Industry Oil and Gas yang mewakili sekitar 400 Perusahaan yang tersebar di Production, Refinement and Distribution, serta industry lainnya, kadang juga disebut sebagai AOI atau American Oil Industry.

Sejak tahun 1924, API sudah membuat standard untuk keperluan Industry Minyak dan Gas Alam dunia.

Saat ini API memantain sekitar 550 Standard yang meliputi seluruh aspek didalam Industry Minyak dan Gas Alam. API juga ikut terlibat secara aktif didalam pembuatan dan pengembangan ISO atau International Standard Organization yang juga sesuai untuk digunakan di dunia industry secara umum.

Setiap tahunnya lebih dari 100,000 publications disebar keseluruh penjuru dunia oleh API.

American Petroleum Institute
1220 L Street, NW
Washington DC 20005-4070
USA

http://www.api.org

Beberapa API Standard yang biasa digunakan di dalam dunia kerja Engineering saya lampirkan dibawah beserta sekilas scope dari Standard tersebut.

  1. API 2B: Specification for the Fabrication of Structural Steel Pipe.
    This specification covers the fabrication of structural steel pipe formed from plate steel with Longitudinal and circumferential butt-weld seams, typically in sizes 14in Ouside Diameter (OD) and larger with wall thickness 3/8 in and greater.This pipe is suitable for use in construction of welded Offshore Structures. And primarily intended to be use in Piling and Main Structural members.
  2. API 5L:Specification for Line Pipe:
    This specification is to provide standards for pipe suitables for use in conveying GAS, WATER, and OIL in both OIL and NATURAL GAS Industries. This specification covers seamless and welded steel line pipe. Includes Plain-End, Threaded-End, Belled-end pipe, and Through-the-Flowline (TFL)pipe and pipe with ends prepared for use with special coupling.
  3. API 520: Sizing, Selection and Installation of Pressure-Relieving Devices in Refineries
    Part I – Sizing and Selection.

    This recommended pratice applies to the sizing and selection of pressure Relief devices used in refineries and related industries for equipment that has a MAWP (Maximum Allowable Working Pressure) of 15 psig (103 kPag) or Greater. Intended to protect infired Pressure Vessels and Related Equipment againts overpressure from Operating and Fire Contingencies.
  4. API 520: Sizing, Selection and Installation of Pressure-Relieving Devices in Refineries
    Part II – Installation

    This recommended pratice covers methode of Installation for pressure relief devices used in refineries and related industries for equipment that has a MAWP (Maximum Allowable Working Pressure) of 15 psig (103 kPag) or Greater.
  5. API 526: Flanged Steel Pressure Relief valves
    This standard is a purchase specification for flanged steel pressure relief valves.
    Basic requirements are given for direct spring-loaded pressure relief valves and pilot-operated pressure relief valves as follows:
    a. Orifice Designation and area
    b. Valve size and pressure rating, inlet and outlet
    c. Materials
    d. Pressure-Temperature Limits
    e. Center-to-face dimensions, inlet and outlet
  6. API Standard 530/ISO 13704:2001: Calculation of Heater-Tube Thickness in Petroleum Refineries
    This Internaitonal Standards specifies requirements and gives recommendations for the procedures and design criteria used for
    calculating the required wall thickness of new tubes for petroleum refinery heaters, for both corrosive and non-corrosive applications. Specifically for the design of refinery and related process Fired Heater Tubes (direct-fired, heat-absorbing tubes with enclosures).
  7. API 541: Form-wound Squirrel-Cage Induction Motors-500 HP and Larger
    This standard covers the minimum requirements for form-wound squirrel-cage inductions motors 500 Horsepower (HP) and larger for use in Petroleum Industry Services.
  8. API 560: Fired Heaters for General Refinery Service
    This standard covers the minimum requirements for the design, materials, fabrication, inspection, testing, preparation for shipment, and erection of FIRED HEATERS, AIR PREHEATERS, FANS and BURNERS for General Refinery Service.
  9. API 594: Check Valves: Flanged, Lug, Wafer and Butt-Welding
    This standard covers design, material, face-to-face dimension, pressure-temperature ratings, and examinations, inspection, test requirements for two types of Check valves:

    • TYPE A Check Valves: short face-to-face and can be wafer, lug or double flanges, singale plate or dual plate; gray iron, ductile iron, steel, nickel alloy or other alloy desihned for Installation between Class 125 – 250 Cast Iron Flanges as ASME B16.1, between Class 150 and 300 ductile iron flanges specifies in ASME B16.5, and between Class 150 – 600 steel pipeline flanges as specified in MSS SP-44 or carbon steel flanges as Specified in ASME B16.47
    • TYPE B Check Valves are long face-to-face and can be Flanged or Butt-Welding, steel, nickel allow or other alloy designed for installation between Class 150-2500 Steel Flanges as in ASME B16.5 or for butt-welding into industry accepted piping system
  10. API 598: Valve Inspection and Testing
    This standard covers inspection, examination, supplementary examinations, and pressure test requirements for resilient-seated, non-metallic-seated and metal-to-metal-seated Valves of the Gate, Globa, Plug, Ball, Check, and Butterfly type.
  11. API 602: Steel gate, Globe and Check Valves for Sizes DN 100 and Smaller for the or Petroleum and Natural Gas Industries.
    ISO 15761: 2002: This International Standard Specifies the requirements for a series of compact steel gate, globe and check valves for petroleum and natural gas industry application.
    Applicable to: DN 8, 10, 15, 20, 25, 32, 40, 50, 65, 80, and 100 corresponding to: NPS 1/4, 3/8, 1/2, 3/4, 1, 1 1/4, 1 1/2, 2, 2 1/2, 3 and 4. and to pressure designation of Class 150, 300, 600, 800 and Class 1500. Class 800 is not a listed class designation but is an intermediate class number widely used for socket-welding and threaded end compact valves.
  12. API 607: Testing of Valves – Fire Type-testing Requirement
    or ISO 1-497-5:2004.

    This international standard specifies fire type-testing requirements and a fire type-test methode for confirming the pressure-containing capability of valve under pressure during and after the fire test. It does not cover the testing requirements for valve actuators other than manually operated gear boxxes or similar mechanism when theses form part of the normal valve assembly.
  13. API 609: Butterfly Valves: Double Flanged, Lug and Wafer Type.
    This standard covers design, material, face-to-face dimensions; pressure-temperature ratings and examination, inspection, and test requirements for Gray Iron, Ductile Iron, Bronze, Steel, Nickel base Alloy or special alloy butterfly valves that provide shuttoff in the closed position and are suitable for flow regulation.
  14. API 610: Centrifugal Pumps for Petroleum, Petrochemical and Natural Gas Industries
    equivalent to:
    ISO 13709: 2003: Centrifugal Pumps for Petroleum, Petrochemical and Natural Gas Industries

    This international standard specifies requirements for centrifugal pumps, including pumps running in reverse as hydraulic power recovery turbines for use in petroleum, petrochemical and gas industry process services.
  15. API 611: General Purpose Steam Turbines for Refinery Service
  16. API 612: Petroleum, Petrochemical and natural Gas Industries – Steam Turbines – Special Purpose Applications
    equivalent to:
    ISO Final Draft International Standard 10437:

    This standard specifies requirements and gives recommendations for the design, materials, fabrication, inspection, testing and preparation for shipment for Steam Turbines in special purposes services. It also covers the related lube-oil systems, instrumentation, control systems and auxiliary equipment. It is not applicable to General Purpose Steam Turbines which are covered in API Std. 611.
  17. API 613: Special Purpose Gear Units for Petroleum, Chemical and Gas Industry Services
    This standard covers the menimum requirements for specifial-purpose, enclosed, precission single and double-helical one and two-stage speed increasers and reducers of parallel-shaft design for petroleum, chemical and gas Industry services.
  18. API 614: Lubrication, Shaft-Sealing, and Control-Oil Systems and Auxiliaries for Petroleum, Chemical and Gas Industry Services.
    This international standard covers the minimum requirements for lubrication systems, oil-type shaft-sealing systems, dry gas face-type shatf-sealing systems, and control-oil systems for general purposes applications. General purpose applications are limited to lubrication systems.
  19. API 616: Gas Turbines for the Petroleum, Chemical, and Gas Industry Services .
    This standard covers the minimum requirements for open, simple, and regenerative-cycle combustion gas turbines units for services of mechanical drive, generator drive, or process gas generation.
  20. API 617: Centrifugal Compressors for Petroleum, Chemical, and Gas Service Industries.
  21. This standard covers the minimum requirements for centrifugal compressors used in petroleum, chemical, and gas industries that handle air or gas. This standard does not apply to fans or blowers that develop less than 34 kPa or 5 Psi) pressure rise above atmospheric pressure; these are covered by API Standard 673.

  22. API 620: Design and Construction of Large, Welded, Low-Pressure Storage Tank
  23. API 650: Welded Steel Tanks for Oil Storage.
    This standard covers material, design, fabrication, erection, and tetsing requirements for vertical, cylindrical, aboveground, closed and open top, welded steel storage tank in various size and capacities for internal pressures approximating atmospheric pressure (internal pressure not exceedng the weight of the roof plates), but a higher internal pressure is permitted when additional requirements are met (see 1.1.10 of API 650).This standard applies only to tanks whose entire bottom is uniformly supported and to tanks in nonrefrigerated service that have a maximum design temperature of 93 C (200 F) or less.
  24. API 661: Air-Cooled Heat Exchangers for General Refinery Service.
    ISO 13706: 2000: Petroleum and Natural Gas Industries – Air Cooled Heat Exchangers.
    This International Standard gives requirements and recommendations for the designs, materials, fabrication, inspection, testing and preparation for shipment of air-cooled heat exchangers for use in the petroleum and natural gas industries.
  25. API 662: Plate Heat Exchangers for General Refinery Services.
    Part 1- Plate-and-Frame Heat Exchangers.
    ISO 15547-1:2006: (Identical)Petroleum, petrochemical and natural gas industries-Plate-type Heat Exchangers-Part 1: Plate-and-Frame Heat Exchangers.
    This Part of ISO 15547 gives requirements and recommendations for the mechanical designs, materials, fabrication, inspection, testing and preparation for shipment of plate-and-frame heat exchangers for use in petroleum, petrochemical and natural gas industries. It is applicbale to gasketed, semi-welded and welded plate-and-frame heat exchangers.
  26. API 670: Machinery Protection Systems.
    This standard covers the minimum requirements for a machinery protection systems measuring radial shaft vibrations, casing vibration, shaft axial position shaft rotational speed, piston rod drop, phase reference, overspeed, and critical machinery temperatures (such as bearing metal and motor windings).It covers requirements for hardware (transducer and monitor systems), installation, documentation and testing.
  27. API 682: Pumps-Shaft Sealing Systems for Centrifugal and Rotary Pumps.
    ISO 21049: 2004 (identical): Pumps-Shaft Sealing Systems for Centrifugal and Rotary Pumps.
    This international standard specifies requirements fand gives recommendation for sealing systems for centrifugal and rotary pumps used in the petroleum, natural gas and chemical industries.It is applicable mainly for hazardeous, flammable and/or toxic services where a greater of reliability is requiredfor the improvement of equipment availability and the reduction of both emissions to atmosphere and life cycle sealing cost.

    It covers seal pump shaft diameters from 20mm (0.75 in) to 110 mm (4.3 in).

  28. API 1104: Welding of Pipelines and Related Facilities
    This standard covers the gas and arc welding of butt, fillet, and socket welds in carbon and low-alloy steel piping used in the compression, pumping and transmission of crude petroleum, petroleum products, fuel gases, carbon dioxida, nitorgen and, where aplicable, covers welding on distribution system.
  29. API 2218: Fireproofing Practices in Petroleum and Petrochemical Processing Plants.
    This publication is intended to provide guidance for selection, applying, and maintaining fireproofing systems that are designed to limit the extent of fire related property loss in the petroleum and petrochemical industries.
  30. API 2510: Design and Construction of LPG Installation.
    This standard covers the design, construction and location of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) installation at marine and pipeline terminals, natural gas processing plants, refineries, petrochemical plants or tank farms.This standard covers storage vessels, loading and unloading systems, piping or related equipment.
  31. API 2510 A: Fire-Protection Consideration for the Design and Operation of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) Storage Facilities.
    This publication addresses the design, operation, and maintenance of LPG Storage facilities, from the standpoints of prevention and control of releases, fire protection design, and fire-control measures. In case of conflict, the API Standard 2510 shall prevail.
  32. API RP 2A-WSD : Recommended Practice for Planning, Designing and Constructing Fixed Offshore Platforms – Working Stress Design.
    This publication serves as a guide for those who are concerned with the design and construction of new platforms and for the relocation of existing platforms used for the drilling, development, storage of hydrocarbon in offshore area.In addition, guidelines are provided for the assessment of existing platforms in the event that it become necessary to make a determination of the “fitness for purposes” of the structure.
  33. API RP – 14G: Recommended Practice for Fire Prevention and Control of Fixed Open-Type Offshore Production Platforms
    This publication presents recommendations for minimizing the likelihood of having an accidental fire, and for designing, inspecting, and maintaining fire control systems.It emphasizes the need to train personnel in fire fighting, to conduct routine drills, and to establish methodes and procedures for safe evacuations.
  34. API RP – 14J: Recommended Practice for Design and Hazard Analysis for Offshore Production Facilities
    This document recommends minimum requirements and guidelines for the design and layout of production facilities on open-type offshore platforms, and it is intended to bring together in one place a brief description of basic hazard analysis procedure for offshore production facilities.
  35. API RP – 521: Guide for Pressure-Relieving and Deprusuring Systems.
    This recommended practice is applicable to pressure-relieving and vapor depressuring systems.
    This recommended practice is intended to supplement the practices set forth in API Recommended Practice 520 Part-1, for establishing a basis of design.
  36. API RP-577: Welding Inspection and Metallurgy
    This recommended practices provides guidance to the API authorized inspector on welding inspection as encountered with fabrication and repair of refinery and chemical plant equipment and piping.

One response

  1. klatenenergy

    Terima kasih buat artikelnya. Artikel yang bagus dan lengkap.
    Agar tidak terjadi perebutan food untuk manusia dan mesin mungkin dapat digunakan, ambil contoh biodiesel dari minyak jelantah bekas.
    Salam.

    2 Januari 2013 pukul 20:58

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